Healthcare is responsibility of Provinces. Federal government funds certain percentage of healthcare costs, provinces tap up the rest and provides health care services.
Not all healthcare services are fee in Canada. Except few exceptions, dental care and pharma care are not free in Canada. Unless part of a hospital care, complementary health care services are not free such as physiotherapy, massage therapy.
There is no private healthcare available if a healthcare service is publicly funded.
Private healthcare insurance is available to cover healthcare services that are not publicly funded. Some employers provide health insurance as part of their employment benefits.
New permanent residents are not covered by public health care in first 3 months of their arrival. It is important to buy a health insurance before travel to Canada or upon arrival to cover first 3 months of probationary period.